Livelihood Substitution: The Case of the Lyari Expressway

Survey Results and Response to Research Questions

A. Respondents Surveyed and the Areas They Come From

1. Types of Survey

Four types of surveys were carried out. They are listed below.

1.1 Surveys in Settlements to be Demolished

Surveys were carried out in settlements in a one-kilometre stretch along the northern bank of the Lyari River which collectively contain approximately 2,000 houses. They include both regularised areas as well as unauthorised katchi abadis (square settlements) and consist of the following.

  • Ilyas Goth (village): This is a 19th century Baloch village which has a sizeable Sindhi community as well.
  • Ghosia Colony: This is an ethnically mixed post-independence settlement and contains Bengalis, Pathans from the NWFP and Punjabi migrants.
  • Tarbela Colony: Persons evicted from the Tarbela Dam Project in the NWFP in the 1960s migrated to Karachi and settled here.
  • Haji Mureed Goth: This again is a 19th century Baloch settlement which has a number of Sindhi households in it.

Persons from 52 families were interviewed of which 12 came from leased locations and 40 from unauthorised locations. The 52 families contain 475 members including 217 children of which 157 attend some form of school.

1.2 Surveys at a Resettlement Site

Surveys were carried out at the Hawks Bay Relocation Site. The site is approximately 12 kilometres from the nearest point of the Lyari bed. Development work at the site is being carried out and includes water, sewage and roads and schools as well. However, it will take at least six to seven years to complete (if it will be completed at all). Given the acute shortage of water in Karachi, it is unlikely that the settlement will receive piped water or that government schools will acquire adequate teaching staff.

The people who have been settled at the Site come mainly from areas on the northern bank next to Sher Shah and Akbar Road. These areas have small scale industrial units both in the formal and informal sector. Many of these units have been demolished since they come in the alignment of the Expressway.

Forty-four families were interviewed. Collectively they contain 315 family members including 148 children of which 63 attend some form of school.

1.3 Survey of Commercial Units before Demolitions

Owners of eight commercial units were interviewed in a one-kilometre belt at Liaquatabad along the northern bank of the River. Above the flood line the area is leased. However, both leased and un-leased units are in the way of the Expressway.

Owners interviewed include seven shops (five manufacturing furniture) and one soap factory. One of the respondents is leased and the other six are unauthorised.

1.4 Survey of Commercial Units after Demolitions

Six shop owners were surveyed at the Hawks Bay Road Resettlement Site. They had all been shop and factory owners in the Akbar Road and Sher Shah area on the northern bank of the Lyari River. They have opened shop on the residential plots they have been allocated. This is strictly speaking illegal but they have no other option since commercial units which are being demolished are not entitled to compensation or land according to the resettlement policy.

2. Survey Methodology

Interviews were carried out by Zahid Farooq (URC Social Organiser), Noor Jehan (URC Researcher), Rizwan-ul-Haq (URC Programmer) and Adnan Farooqui (URC Social Organiser and Administrator). Initially, they worked in groups of two. However, after an analysis of a total of 20 surveys, they worked individually.

In the settlement marked for demolition, respondent families were identified by Maroof Sultan, a community leader of the area. At the resettlement site community activists identified the respondent families and commercial units. Identifying commercial units was a problem since very few of them have been established so far. It was difficult to work systematically with the commercial units which were marked for demolition as their owners were not willing to be interviewed. As such, their selection depended entirely on who was willing to respond.

Although much of the answers to the questionnaires were given by the head of the family, family members, including women participated in most cases except for the commercial units.

The tabulation of the surveys was carried out by Omer Khan (Architect of the URC Mapping Unit) and Rizwan-ul-Haq.

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